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Draft Guiding Principles - Jan2228 29ReGioNAL CoNTexT GuiDiNG PRiNCiPLeS Guiding Principles Average Housing + Transportation Costs as Percent of Household Income The statistics for communities are modeled for the Regional Typical Household. Income: $55,842 Commuters: 1.25 vehicles Household Size: 2.38 (Iowa City, IA) Source: Housing and Tranpsortation Fact Sheets, Center for Neighborhood Tech- nology. Based on data from the American Community Survey: 2019. http://htaindex.cnt.org/ 30 31GuiDiNG PRiNCiPLeS GuiDiNG PRiNCiPLeS GUIDING PRINCIPLE #1 Economic Opportunity Supports growth, innovation, job creation, and productivity An efficient, reliable, and accessible transportation network is an essential component for fos- tering economic opportunity—one that connects suppliers with producers; businesses with workers and customers; and people with employment centers, education, and services. A true multi-modal transportation network, where all modes of transportation are provided, ensures the flexibility to support a variety of industries and businesses. In many ways, the transportation system in the Iowa City Urbanized Area performs very well. Geographically, the region benefits from being situated at the crossroads of Interstates 80 and 380, Highway 1, and Highway 6. Local efforts have produced one of the most heavily utilized public transit systems in the country (ridership per capita). The adopted Complete Streets policy along with a cooperative approach to regional trail planning has helped to established a com- prehensive bicycle and pedestrian network. The area is also served by the Iowa Interstate Rail- road and CRANDIC Railroad, with the CRANDIC line ideally located for potential future passenger service between major employment centers in Coralville and North Liberty and the University of Iowa’s central campus and hospital in Iowa City. When compared with peer communities, the region boasts minimal congestion on roadways as shown by very low delays per auto commuter – at 30% less than the national average [2019Amer- ican Community Survey]. Maintaining minimal road congestion, and providing access to job cen- ters of the future will be a key component of ensuring economic opportunity throughout the region for both commuters and freight alike. Strategies to enhance economic opportunity: • Focus transportation dollars to areas of greatest need. • Direct investments towards areas that encounter significant congestion. • Encourage use of intelligent transportation technologies and efficient intersection de- sign to improve corridor efficiency. • Expand and improve multi-modal access to employment. • Perform transportation engineering evaluations to aid in maximizing efficiency at spot locations. • Facilitate the annual Traffic Signal Timing program and provide updated signal timing recommendations at least once every five years. PERFORMANCE MEASURES DESIRED TREND BASELINE DATA 2022 PLAN DATA CURRENT TREND ↓18.5 min 18.5 min ↑ ↑93%↓Transit Access to Employment Percent of metro employees within 1/4 miles of transit route. Travel Time to Work Average travel time for all workers in the metro. PERFORMANCE MEASURE DEFINITION GOAL Supports growth, innovation, job creation, and productivity. OBJECTIVES University of Iowa Research Park and the 965 corridor Located along and north of Oakdale Boulevard in Coralville, the University of Iowa Research Park is home to 15 companies with an additional16 incubator tenants located in the BioVentures Center and employs approx- imatley 2,000 workers. Addtional office development adjacent to the research park includes UI Healthcare Support Serivices (900 employees) and Sedgwick (200 employees). A $395-million UI Healthcare facility now under construction at the corner of Hwy 965 and For- evergreen Road in North Libertyand will open in 2025 and will be a large economic generator in this area of the Metro. Average Commute Time in minutes Workers Age 16+ Source: American Community Survey 2019 Metro Area communities enjoy lower average commute times to work compaired to the national average (27.6 minutes) and most are lower than the state average (19.8 minutes). An illustration of the Univerisity of Iowa Hospital Center now under construction on Forevergreen Road in North Liberty. Photo courtesy Neumann Monson Architects. 17 18.7 24.3 19.5 15.3 ioWA CiTYCoRALViLLeNoRTH LiBeRTYTiFFiNuNiVeRiSTY HeiGHTSPark Place in Tiffin is a 450+ acre mixed use de- velopment that includes multi-family, single-fam- ily lots, and a variety of commercial uses located just west of I-380. 32 33GuiDiNG PRiNCiPLeS GuiDiNG PRiNCiPLeS GUIDING PRINCIPLE #2 Environment Preserves and protects our natural resources, including land, water, and air Transportation, land use, and development patterns have a signficant impact on our environ- ment. While the MPO has prioritized preserving and improving existing transportation infrastruc- ture to address congestion and safety issues, the long-range plan considers more broadly how to minimize these conflicts as the metro area grows. Land use patterns have a profound impact on the type and design of transportation infrastruc- ture and determine the feasibility of alternative travel modes. While it is important to recognize differences in local and regional land use planning and economic development objectives, align- ing land use with transportation goals is an essential step in addressing many environmental and transportation concerns. • Using land efficiently conserves farmland and helps to avoid environmentally sensitive areas, such as wetlands and woodlands, which in turn preserves water quality and reduces flooding impacts. It also provides opportunities for recreation and scenic views that enhance quality of life and economic development in our communities. • Encouraging compact development, with well-connected street patterns that support active forms of transportation, helps to reduce travel demand by reducing the length and number of trips necessary to meet daily needs. • Mixed use development at appropriate locations can reduce travel times and distances for residents to access their daily needs. • Locating residential areas near destinations like employment centers, schools, and shopping can reduce the length and number of trips a household must make in a day. Attention to the natural and social environment should be demonstrated during transportation project development. Projects included in the LRTP are often years away from final design. De- tailed environmental review may not be feasible at the earliest stages of the planning process, however, the MPO can identify potential impacts to natural and historic resources which can help ensure that transportation projects have minimal impacts on the environment. Land use Patterns and environmental Quality While pollutant emissions from motor vehi- cles have dropped dramatically over the last three decades, air quality problems remain a concern in metropolitan areas, in part due to increases in vehicle miles travelled (VMT). Research has linked air pollution with public health problems and led the U.S. Environmen- tal Protection Agency (EPA) to establish lower thresholds for acceptable levels of air pollu- tion. On a global scale, climate change has fo- cused attention on the environmental impacts of the transportation sector, which contributes more than 25% of our nation’s greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.1 Substantial reduction in VMT can be achieved through land use changes alone. Compact de- velopment can reduce the need to drive by 20- 40%, as compared with traditional suburban development patterns, resulting in a 7-10% reduction in CO2 transportation related emis- sions by 2050.2 The term “compact development” does not mean high-rise or even uniformly high density. but rather higher average “blended” densities. Compact development may be achieved with a belnd of densities and a mix of land uses, strong population and employment centers, in- terconnected streets, and short block lengths. 1. Source: U.S. DOT Transportation and Climate Change Clearinghouse https://climate.dot.gov/about/transporta- tions-role/overview.html. 2. Source: “Growing Cooler: The Evidence for Urban Development and Climate Change.” Urban Land Institute. R. Ewing, et. al. (2007) environmental Consultation Federal code outlines requirements for MPOs regarding environment con- sultation. During project development, MPOJC encourages its member en- tities to strive to avoid or minimize any detrimental effects that transporta- tion projects may have on the environment. The MPO encourages member entities to follow the steps used to define mitigation in 40 CFR 1508.20, which are: 1. Avoid the impact altogether by not taking a certain action or parts of an action 2. Minimize impacts by limiting the degree or magnitude of the action and its implementation 3. Rectifying the impact by repairing, rehabilitating, or restoring the affected environment 4. Reducing or eliminating the impact over time by preservation and maintenance operations during the life of the action 5. Compensating for the impact by replacing or providing substitute resources or environments Avoiding negative impacts to the environment should always be a primary goal during project implementation. When this cannot be achieved, mini- mizing impacts and compensating for those impacts that cannot be avoid- ed helps to ensure that negative environmental externalities are factored into the costs of a project. To help understand potential environmental impacts of transportation projects, MPOJC consults with the following local, regional, and statewide organizations which have an interest in environmental issues in our area: • Iowa Department of Natural Resources • Johnson County Soil and Water Conservation • Iowa Valley Resource Conservation and Development • Iowa State University Extension and Outreach • Johnson County Environmental Advocates • Bur Oak Land Trust 34 35GuiDiNG PRiNCiPLeS GuiDiNG PRiNCiPLeS environmental Justice To ensure that local transportation projects/policies adhere to the principals of environmental justice as directed in Executive Order 12898, the maps on pages 12 and 52 (reference median household income and non-white population map page numbers) illustrate social and environmental factors that will be considered during the development of transportation projects. These figures provide general information; more detailed investigations of specif- ic project impacts will be analyzed during the project-level studies and subsequent national EPA processes. Strategies to Safeguard the Environment: • Avoid impacts to environmentally sensitive features, such as woodlands and wetlands, early in the planning process when planning fpr new infrastructure. • Expand context sensitive and sustainable solutions in the plan- ning and design of transportation infrastructure to help mini- mize impacts on water quality and flooding. • Continue to monitor National Ambient Air Quality Standards thresholds for fine particulate mater (PM 2.5) and improve air quality when possible. • Support the increased use of Electric Vehilces and improve ac- cess to charging infrastructure. • Integrate land use and economic devleopment goals with trans- portation planning. Encourage and support land use plans and policies to enhance overall transportation efficiency, including compact and mixed use development. • Follow adopted MPO “Complete Streets” Policy. DESIRED TREND BASELINE DATA 2022 PLAN DATA CURRENT TREND Increase 1.40 1.6 ↑ ↓660,194 (1000s of miles) 702,664 (1000s of miles)↑ ↓9.04 (2013)8.87 (2019)↓ ↑36 (2021)EV Charging Annual average concentration of Particulate Matter (PM) 2.5 in Johnson County. Total number of public EV charging stations in the metro area. Air Quality PERFORMANCE MEASURE DEFINITION Housing Density Metro area housing units per acre. Vehicle Miles Traveled Local VMT per capita (annual of 1000s of miles). GOAL Preserves and protects our natural resources including land, water, and air. Improve access to Electric Vehicle charging infrastructure through policies, partnerships, and initiatives that encourage the adoption of EVs. Integrate EV readiness into planning efforts, including transportation plans and sustainable communities' strategies. Reduce pollution emissions, including CO2. Encourage and support land use plans and policies to ehance overall transportation efficiency, including compact and mixed use development and street connectivity. OBJECTIVES Continue to monitor National Ambient Air Quality Standard thresholds for fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) and improve air quality when possible. PERFORMANCE MEASURES 36 37GuiDiNG PRiNCiPLeS GuiDiNG PRiNCiPLeS Strategies to Enhance Quality of Life: • Plan for and enhance connectivity between existing neighborhoods, jobs, and local services. • Provide accessible, safe, and low-stress solutions in all transportation modes. • Encourage coordinated land use and transportation planning. • Promote mobility technology. • Continue to incorporate safety factos in transportation planning for all modes. • Continue to support Complete Streets designs and recommendations. • Ensure pedestrian-friendly streets and access to recreational trails. • Build with seniors and children in mind. • Support efforts in areas with high growth/high density development potential that justify transportation infrastructure investments. DESIRED TREND BASELINE DATA 2022 PLAN DATA CURRENT TREND ↓6 hrs/year ↑80%83%↑Trail Access GOAL Enhances livability and creates vibrant and appealing places that serve residents throughout their lives. OBJECTIVES Reduce travel delay to work. Provide access to the trail network. Provide access to transit service. Ensure complete streets with sidewalks and ADA complaint curb ramps. PERFORMANCE MEASURE DEFINITION Travel Delay to Work Annual hours of delay per automobile commuter. Percentage of metro area households within 1/4 miles of a trail system. PERFORMANCE MEASURESGUIDING PRINCIPLE #3 Quality of Life Enhances livability and creates vibrant and appealing places that serve residents throughout their lives. Transportation affects the daily life of every resident in the metropolitan area. When poorly de- signed, transportation infrastructure may act as a barrier, isolating neighborhoods and limiting access to community destinations, work, school, and essential services. As a result, travel may re- quire more time, effort, or expense. On the other hand, a well-designed transportation network enhances all travel modes, enabling residents to fully participate in the social and economic life of their neighborhood and community. Quality of Life benefits to transportation are often difficult to measure quanititatively. Low stress travel routes with few conflict points and reliable speeds can determine whether daily commutes are frustrating or pleasant experiences. Access to multiple modes of transportion can enhance mobility for those too young or too old to drive as well as those with disabilities. Streets and trails that are attractive and feel safe for all users, can encourage social interaction, build neighbor- hood cohesion, and benefit the physical health and well-being of residents. Transportation planning should consider the diverse needs of the community while reflecting a vision for how the community hopes to grow. While investment is most often targeted to gener- ate growth in jobs, housing, and business opportunities, our transportation network should also ensure safe, reliable, clean, and healthy travel experiences for everyone. “[The] trails saved me and my husband’s sanity during the pandemic. Daily walks or even multiple walks a day were routine when we couldn’t work. We are using them more, even though we’re back to work. Lovely trails!” from the LRTP online Transportation Survey (2021) 38 39GuiDiNG PRiNCiPLeS GuiDiNG PRiNCiPLeS Costs rise as the road network expands Each new lane-mile constructed will require regular maintenance and preservation treat- ment for its entire lifetime. The more lane- miles a system has, the higher the overall maintenance costs. In addition to maintaining the surface pavement, additional miles of road also increase costs for snow removal, restrip- ing, and other operational activities that keep a roadway functioning. increasing public costs The cost of construction and repair of high- ways in the U.S. has nearly doubled since 2003, according to the FHWA. Source: National Highway Construction Cost Index https:// www.fhwa.dot.gov/policy/otps/nhcci/pt1.cfm GUIDING PRINCIPLE #4 System Preservation Maintain existing facilities in good and reliable condition Good quality roads and bridges are an important part of a reliable transportation system and impact the daily commutes of drivers across the metro area. With limited funding and an aging system, it is more important than ever to focus on preserving our existing system through repair and preventative maintenance. The Future Forward 2050 plan identifies strategies that focus on the planning, maintenance, and financing of the area’s transportation system and equipment to ensure it remains in good and reliable condition. Rehabilitating a road that has deteriorated is substantially more expensive than keeping that road in good condition. According to the American Association of State Highway and Transporta- tion Officials, every $1 spent to keep a road in good condition avoids $6-$14 to rebuild the same road once it has deteriorated significantly. Prioritizing reconstruction and rehabilitation over new construction is essential to keep our local transportation system in working order and maximize the results from each dollar spent. DESIRED TREND BASELINE DATA 2022 PLAN DATA TREND ↓20% (2025)9% (2019)↓ ↑New Measure 46% (local) / 48.9% (state) ↓New Measure 9% (local) / 2.3% (state) ↑93% (2014) state/federal 97% (2019) State/Federal ↑ ↑70% (2013) Local Fed Aid Routes 86% (2019) Local Fed Aid Route ↑ ↑New Measure 100% (local) n/a (state)↑ ↓New Measure 0% (local) / n/a (state) ↑New Measure 83% (local) / 50.9% (state) ↓New Measure 4.6% (local) / 10.6% (state) Cambus N/A Coralville 100% (2020) Iowa City Transit 0% (2020) Cambus 13.51% (2020) Coralville 60% (2020) Iowa City Transit 26.12% (2020) Cambus N/A Coralville N/A Iowa City Transit N/A Cambus 0% (2020) Coralville 0% (2020) Iowa City Transit 100% Transit Facility/Storage & 0% Transit Downtown Annex and Court St Transportation Center (2020) ↑New Measure ↓New Measure ↑ ↓ New Measure New Measure Percent of non-revenue vehicles met or exceeded Useful Life* Percent of revenue vehicles met or exceeded Useful Life* Percent of track segments with performance restrictions* Percent of assets with condition rating below 3.0 on FTA TERM Scale* Transit Percentage of NHS bridges classified as being in Poor condition* Bridges Percent of Interstate pavements in Good condition* Percent of Interstate pavements in Poor condition* Percent of non-Interstate NHS pavements in Good condition* Pavement Condition Index Percent of non-Interstate NHS pavements in Poor condition* Percent of pavement measured at FAIR or better condition. PERFORMANCE MEASURE DEFINITION Percent of bridges (IDOT, County, & City) in Johnson County rated as being deficient Percent of NHS bridges classified as being in Good condition* GOAL Maintains the exisiting facilities in good and reliable condition. OBJECTIVES Increase percent of bridges in GOOD condition. Increase percent of roads in FAIR or better condition. Extend the life of assets and vehicles in GOOD condition. Prioritize maintenance of existing transportation facilities over system expansion. Ensure investments are adequate to improve bridge conditions. PERFORMANCE MEASURES Source: Iowa DOT 2019-2028 Transportation Asset Management Plan https://iowadot.gov/systems_plan- ning/fpmam/IowaDOT-TAMP-2019.pdf 40 41GuiDiNG PRiNCiPLeS GuiDiNG PRiNCiPLeS The reconstruction of 5th Street was designed with transit, pedestrian, and bicycle facilities and offers a low-stress alternative to 2nd Street in Coralville. GUIDING PRINCIPLE #5 Choice Offers accessible and affordable multi-modal transportation options. Though a majority of adults rely on private motor vehicles for most daily trips, nearly everyone uses additional modes to meet some of their needs, whether it is walking to a neighborhood school or park; catching the bus to school or special events; or accessing a trail system for recreation. For individuals who do not own or have limited access to a private vehicle, what some call “choice” is really a necessity. Transit or shared riding options are a vital stepping stone to economic opportunity for low-income residents. For the elderly and people with certain dis- abilities, transportation choice allows for full participation in community life and access to ser- vices. Children and youth, a sizeable but often overlooked part of the population, rely heavily on active transportation modes for independent access to schools, parks, and social activities. Because time and convenience are primary factors that influence how many people travel, it follows that transportation choices tend to be greater in areas where development is relatively compact and destinations that serve residents’ daily needs are located close to housing. Resi- dential density is essential for efficient transit services. A comprehensive network of pedestrian and bicycle facilities help to expand transportation options and are an essential complement to transit services. DESIRED TREND BASELINE DATA 2022 PLAN DATA CURRENT TREND ↑14.9% (2015)19.43% (2019)↑ ↑6.2 miles ↑ ↓13 miles ↑ Sidewalk Deficit Roadway miles on which sidewalks are NOT provided. Residential Density Percentage of dwelling units within 1/4 mile of transit route. Mode Split Percentage of workers commuting via walk, bike, transit, or rideshare. Bike Lane Mileage Centerlane miles of bikelanes. Bike Facility Coverage Percentage of arterial street miles that include bike lanes or sidepaths. PERFORMANCE MEASURE DEFINITION GOAL Offers accessible and affordable multi-modal transportation options Coordinate land use with transportation planning to optimize multi-modal transportation, connectivity, and access. Ensure a connected network of bikeways and pedetrian routes across the metro by expanding existing facilties, closing gaps, and eliminating barriers. Plan for moderate to high-density residential development and mixed uses along arterial streets and transit corridors. Apply complete streets policy, including ADA compliant curb ramps, to all roadway projects. OBJECTIVES PERFORMANCE MEASURES Strategies to ensure Transportation Choice: • Ensure compliance with Complete Streets Policy and the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) requirements on all public street projects. • Coordinate land use with transportation planning to optimize multi-modal options, focus- ing investmens around higher desntiy development and compact, mixed use areas. • Enhance access to activity centers (e.g. commercial areas, schools, recreation, and employ- ment centers by ensuring provision of transit service and safe, low-stress pedestrain and bicycle facilities. • Follow FHWA, NACTO, and AASHTO best practices when planning and implementing new streets. • Explore opportunities to exapnd public transit across metro communities. Even a busy, multi-lane road can be made more hospitable to bicycles and pedestrians. Well-de- signed and landscaped sidepaths extend along Coral Ridge Avenue with pedestrian refuge islands to make crossing easier. Separated grade crossings pass under this busy roadway at two locations in Coralville and at two more in North Liberty (on Ranshaw Way). Operated by the Eastern Iowa Council of Gov- ernments with funding from the Iowa DOT, the 380 Express Bus service is intended to provide a choice for commuters traveling between Iowa City and Cedar Rapids during the construction of the I-80/380 interchange. Planned grade crossing under Ranshaw Way (Hwy 965) in North Liberty will open in 2022. 42 43GuiDiNG PRiNCiPLeS GuiDiNG PRiNCiPLeS GUIDING PRINCIPLE #6 Safety Enhances the safety of all users through a well-desinged/maintained transparent network. The safety of motorists, bicyclists, and pedestrians is a top priority in transportation planning. Motor vehicle collisions result in premature deaths, serious injuries, and are a cause of major economic losses and disruptions to the transportation system. Safety concerns can discourage residents from utilizing active transportation such as bicycling, walking, and transit. Planning for transportation safety should be a comprehensive, multi-modal process that inte- grates safety into surface transportation decision-making. MPOJC supports these processes through: • Maintaining the metro collision report, which identifies problem intersections/midblock locations and provides countermeasures • Performing transportation engineering studies • Conducting road safety audits • Evaluating pedestrian and bicycle accommodations • Inventorying ADA facilities - sidewalks, curb ramps, transit stops • Reviewing traffic signal timings and operations • Assisting MPO entities with safety-related grant funding applications Grant funding scoring criteria [used for scoring projects for STBG/TAP funding/PG# with scoring criteria] used by the MPO Urbanized Area Policy Board helps support safety initiatives, placing a greater weight on capital infrastructure projects that address documented safety issues. increasing Population and VMT From 2015 to 2019, metro area population increased 1.5% while metro vehicle miles trav- elled (VMT) increased by 6%. VMT is outpacing population growth as drivers are, on the whole, driving more miles. During the same period, overall collisions increased by 11%, fatal collisions increased by 33%, and serious injury collisions reduced by 41%. The reduction in serious injugy collision could be attributed to a variety of factors such as infrastructure safety and efficiency improvements, intelligent transportation systems, in-vehicle technologies (such as air bags), and educational outreach campaigns. CollisionsMetro Area Source: Iowa Department of Transportation SAVER: 2011-2015 and 2016-2020 comparison. Note: There were 4 collision fatalities in the Urbanized Area in the most recent 5-year period and 3 fatalities in the previous 5-year period. 2011-2015 and 2016-2020 comparison Collision Trends During the 5-year period 2016-2020, motorist collisions attributed to distracted driving increased by 155% over the previous 5-year period. Of the distracted driver collisions, 43.5% were caused by drivers under the age of 24. The increase in distracted driving collisions represents a major safety challenge and places drivers, passengers, and more vulnerable road users at an increased risk of serious injury or death. During this same 5-year period, collisions attributed to drug or alcohol use increased by 4.7%. Highest Collision intersections: 1. Hwy 6 & S Gilbert St (Iowa City) 2. Hwy 6 and Sycamore St (Iowa City) 3. Hwy 6 and Boyrum St (Iowa City) 4. Oakdale Blvd & Coral Ridge Ave (Coralville) 5. Burlington St & Gilbert St (Iowa City) 6. 2nd St and 1st Ave (Coralville) 7. Riverside Dr & Hwy 1 & Hwy 6 (Iowa City) 8. Burlington St & Madison St (Iowa City) 9. Kansas Ave & Penn St (North Liberty) 10. Riverside Dr & Benton St (Iowa City) Highest Collision Mid-Block Locations 1. 2nd St between 1st Ave & Hawkins Dr/Rocky Shore Dr (Coralville) 2. 2nd St between 25th Ave & 23rd Ave (Coralville) 3. 2nd St between 4th Ave & 1st Ave (Coralville) 4. Hwy 6 between Valley Ave & N Riverside Dr (Iowa City) 5. 2nd St between Camp Cardinal Blvd & 20th Ave (Coralville) 44 45GuiDiNG PRiNCiPLeS GuiDiNG PRiNCiPLeS Collision Trends Bicycling, walking, and transit are becoming in- creasingly popular ways for residents to meet their transportation needs. Between 2011 and 2015, the number of bicycle commuters in the metro area increased 21%, pedestrian com- muters increased 14%, and transit commuters increased 11%. Although metro area collisions are trending down, there has been a 13% increase in bicy- cle collisions and 18% increase in pedestrian collisions. Between 2011 and 2015, four pe- destrians were killed in collisions in the metro area. During the same time period there were no bicycle fatalities and only 5% of all bicycle crashes resulted in major injury (8 bicyclists). DESIRED TREND BASELINE 2021 PLAN DATA TREND ↓24 (local)15 (metro) / 342 (state)↓ ↓0.761 (local) 0.442 (metro) / 1.019 (state)↓ ↓127 (local)134 (metro) / 1,420 (state)↑ ↓4.023 (local)3.930 (metro) / 4.230 (state)↓ ↓32 (local)32 (local)No change ↓1.016 1.016 No change ↓170 198 (local)↑ ↓154 152 (local)↓ Rate of fatalities per 100 million vehicle miles travelled (VMT)* Fatalities Bicycle Collisions Total Collisions (5-year total) Pedestrian Collisions Total Collisions (5-year total) Number of serious injury accidents* (5-year total) Rate of serious injury collisions per 100 million VMT* Nonmotorized Fatalities/Injuries Serious Injuries Number of non-motorized fatalities/ injuries* (5-year total) Rate of non-motorized fatalities and serious injuries per 100 million VMT OBJECTIVES Reduce the number and frequency of serious injury collisions continue to decrease the number of bicycle collisions. Provide access to transit service. Ensure complete streets with sidewalks and ADA complaint curb ramps. Transportation network designed and maintained to enhance the safety and security of all users. GOAL DEFINITION Number of motor vehicle fatalities* (5-year total) PERFORMANCE MEASURE PERFORMANCE MEASURES 46 47GuiDiNG PRiNCiPLeS GuiDiNG PRiNCiPLeS TRANSIT SYSTEM SERVICE DESIRED TREND Fixed Route Bus Demand Response Fixed Route Bus Demand Response Fixed Route Bus Demand Response Fixed Route Bus Demand Response Fixed Route Bus Demand Response Fixed Route Bus Demand Response Fixed Route Bus Demand Response Fixed Route Bus Demand Response Fixed Route Bus Demand Response Mean distance between major mechanical failures by mode* Transit Safety Total number of reportable safety events and rate per total vehicle revenue miles (VRM) by mode.* Iowa City Transit Coralville Cambus Increase No change ↓ ↓ Coralville Iowa City Transit Total number of reportable fatalities and rate per total vehicle revenue miles (VRM) by mode* Total number of reportable injuries and rate per total vehicle revenue miles (VRM) by mode* Iowa City Transit Iowa City Transit Cambus Coralville Cambus 0 Coralville Cambus 0 0 50,000 12,500 8,140 68,456 35,000 68,456 6 injuries / 0.9 per 100 k VRM 1 injury / 0 per 100 k VRM 1 injury / 0.5 per 100 k VRM 1 injury / 0.1 per 100 k VRM 2 injuries / 0.28 per 100 k VRM 1 injury / 0.1 per 100 k VRM 75 events / 10 per 100 k VRM 3 events / 5 per 100 k VRM 1 event / 0.5 per 100 k VRM 31 events / 0.1 per 100 k VRM 10 events / 1.43 per 100 k VRM 31 events / 0.1 per 100 k VRM BASELINEDEFINITION PERFORMANCE MEASURE PERFORMANCE MEASURES GUIDING PRINCIPLE #7 Efficiency Builds a well-connected transportation network with coordinated land use patterns to reduce travel demand and delay, miles traveled, and energy consumption An efficient transportation network is essential to support the economy and livability of our met- ro area. The ease with which people, goods, and services move across the metro area is perhaps the most perceptible hallmark of a healthy transportation system. An inefficient transportation network with excessive congestion, delays, indirect routes, and few transportation choices limits mobility, increases frustration for users, and increases costs in terms of time, delay, fuel con- sumption, and vehicle emissions. Improving the efficiency of our transportation network should be a multi-faceted approach whereby we seek to promote shared mobility by improving access to transit, reducing barriers to active transportation such as bicycle and walking, promote land use patterns that support efficient movement of goods services, and making smart investments in infrastructure and intel- ligent transportation systems and efficient intersection design (e.g. roundabouts) to help traffic move more efficiently. Priorities should be given to transportation infrastructure projects that improve the efficiency of the existing network for vehicles, pedestrians, and bicycles. Vehicular Traffic Congestion According to the 2018 MPOJC Travel Demand Model, the metro area has relatively few areas of major congestion (LOS E or F) however there are daily bottlenecks during peak travel periods on Park Road in Iowa City, Melrose Avenue in University Heights and at an interstate ramp along I-80. In 2018, 2% of roads during the AM peak hour and 5% of roads during the PM peak hour are con- sidered congesting or significantly congested (LOS D, E, or F). By 2050, we expect these number to increase to 13% in the AM peak hour and 15% in the PM peak hour if no additional capacity investments are made to the network. If planned investments are made as proposed by local entities, the metro area can reduce the miles of roadway that are congesting or significantly congested to 10% during the AM peak hour and 13% during the PM peak hour by 2050. For a more information on road network congestion please see pages XX – XX in the Road and Bridge Network chapter. By 2050: without the additional planned capacity investments included in this plan . . . 13% of roads during the AM peak hour and 15% of roads during the PM peak hour are expected to be congesting or significantly congested with planned investments: 10% of roads during the AM peak hour and 13% during the PM peak hour are expected to be congesting or significantly congested. Created by Bence Bezeredy, from Noun Project. Less than 1% of roads were significantly congested during both AM and PM peak hours in 2018. The challenge for maintaining an efficient road system in a rapidly growing metro area: “Road system” refers to interstate, highway, arterial, collector and other essential roads. For more information on the traffic model and how it predicts future travel demand, see page XXX. Road and bridge projects are listed on page XXX. 48 49GuiDiNG PRiNCiPLeS GuiDiNG PRiNCiPLeS PERFORMANCE MEASURES GUIDING PRINCIPLE #8 Health Invites and enhances healthy and active lifestyles Historically, our transportation system was designed to move people and goods efficiently with little regard to the impact on community health. Today there is growing awareness across metro communities that transportation systems exert a profound impact on quality of life and health. Walkable, bikeable, and transit-oriented communities are associated with healthier populations that experience more physical activity, lower body mass index, lower rates of traffic injuries, and less air pollution.1 The way cities are planned and designed is strongly associated with the resulting levels of phys- ical activity and health on both individual and community levels.2 In order to plan for a regional transportation system that invites and enhances healthy and active lifestyles, we look to build off of our multi-modal transportation options, generating active and motorized transportation systems that are safe, well-maintained, and enhance connections to important destinations. The region’s transportation system influences public health through four primary ways: 1. Active Transportation – People’s participation in active transportation (walking, bicycling, and transit, to some degree) is influenced by the built and natural environment in which they live. Transportation networks that encourage active transportation with continuous and convenient sidewalks and crosswalks, bicycle facilities, and transit access can help peo- ple increase their level of physical activity resulting in health benefits and disease preven- tion. 2. Safety – All road users should be safe with minimal risks of injury. Well-designed multi-modal transportation network designs that consider all users can reduce conflicts and improve safety. 3. Air Quality – Air quality is an important component of transportation planning for commu- nities, especially for at-risk groups including children and elderly persons. Increased num- bers of vehicle trips and VMT are associated with higher levels of air pollutants resulting from vehicle emissions, which can negatively impact respiratory health. 4. Connectivity / Accessibility – The transportation network should allow people to effi- ciently access the places they need in order to live a healthy and active lifestyle such as grocery stores, employment centers, hospitals, recreation facilities, and schools. Active transportation is associated with many positive health outcomes: • Active commuting that incorporates cycling and walking is associated with an 11 percent reduction in cardiovascular risk. • Active transportation as part of everyday trav- el is as effective as structured workouts for improving health. • In addition to getting more overall daily physical activity, teenagers who bike or walk to school watch less TV and are less likely to smoke than their peers who are driven to school. • Public transit users take 30 percent more steps and spend roughly eight more minutes walking each day than drivers. • A 30-minute round-trip bicycle commute is associated with better mental health in men. Source: American Public Health Association Fact Sheet, “Active Transportation: in addition to getting more overall physical activity daily Health, Safety and Equity.” https://www.apha.org/-/media/ Files/PDF/topics/transport/APHA_Active_Transpor- tation_Fact_Sheet_2010.ashx Measuring Street Connectvity Connectivity refers to the density of connections in road networks and the directness of links. A well-connected network has many short seg- ments (links), numerous intersections (nodes), and few cul-de-sacs. Well connected networks reduce travel distances and increase route options. By allowing more direct travel between destinations, opportunity for active modes of transportation are enhanced. The connectivity index provides a simple measure of connectivity and is calculated by: 1. Counting all nonarterial intersections and cul-de-sacs (nodes) in the study area; 2. Counting all nonarterial roadway segments (links) between the nodes in the study area; and 3. Dividing the number of links by the number of nodes.https://www.cityofhenderson.com/home/showpublisheddocu- ment/1088/637383669815270000 DESIRED TREND BASELINE 2022 PLAN DATA TREND ↑96.40%19.43% (2019)↑ ↓5,709 (2015)5,216 (2018)↓ No change New Measure 100% (local) / 100% (state) ↑New Measure 90.9% (local) ↓New Measure 1.14 (local) / 1.12 (state) GOAL Truck Travel Time Reliability (TTR) Index* Travel Time Reliability Builds a well-connected transportation network with coordinated land use patterns to reduce travel demand and delay, miles traveled, and energy consumption Vehicle Miles Traveled Local VMT per capita (annual, 1000's of miles) Percent of the person-miles traveled on the Interstate that are reliable* Percent of the person-miles traveled on the non- Interstate NHS that are reliable* PERFORMANCE MEASURE DEFINITION Congestion Percentage of major road mileage at LOS of C or better at peak hours. OBJECTIVES Reduce congestion along collector and arterial streets Reduce metro vehicle miles traveled (VMT) Reduce energy consumption 50 51GuiDiNG PRiNCiPLeS GuiDiNG PRiNCiPLeS Strategies to Foster Health: 1. Promote active transportation through the creation of a safe and convenient transportation network throughout the region. 2. Prioritize infrastructure improvements near transit stops and public transportation facili- ties. 3. Encourage active lifestyles through way-finding signs, maps, and other educational materi- als. 4. Improve elements of the transportation network that are seen as unsafe such as the scarci- ty of sidewalks, crosswalks and bicycle facilities, in order to encourage active transportation and increase safety. 5. Reduce injuries associated with motor vehicle crashes through the improvement of road- way facilities and availability of transportation options. 6. Encourage active transportation to minimize air pollution from motor vehicles, and the fuels used to operate them. 7. Address transportation needs and prioritize critical gaps to ensure equity and comprehen- siveness in efforts to enhance active living. 8. Ensure all people have access to safe, healthy, convenient, and affordable transportation options regardless of age, income, and other socioeconomic factors. DESIRED TREND BASELINE DATA 2022 PLAN DATA TREND ↑18.3% (2014)16.9% (2019)↓ ↑96% (2013)95.5% (2019)↓ ↑7.9 (2014)7.9 (2019) GOAL Invites and enhances healthy and active lifestyles OBJECTIVES Reduce congestion along collector and arterial streets Food Environment Index Reduce metro vehicle miles traveled (VMT) Reduce energy consumption PERFORMANCE MEASURE DEFINITION Physical Activity Percent of adults in Johnson County who are physically active. Seat Belt Use Percent of adults reporting to always use seat belts. Indicator of access to healthy foods Low to High (0-10). PERFORMANCE MEASURES Equity Provide mobility and access for all people and all neighborhoods In order to ensure equitable levels of transportation investment, MPO communities must con- sider the unique needs and circumstances that impact mobility or access for individuals and neighborhoods. On a programmatic (micro) level, this includes the type and design of facilities or services needed to ensure all members of the community can meet their daily needs. On a structural (macro) level, land use and transportation policies that support compact, and mixed use development with a range of housing types helps maximize opportunties for multi-modal and active transportation. Transportation exerts a profound influence on people’s economic and social opportunities. For some, the costs of transportation represents a major share of their household budget. For others, inadequate or unreliable transportation serves as a significant obstacle to gaining and retaining employment. For the elderly population and people with disabilities, transportation can be essential to avoiding social isolation. For children and youth, reliable transportation ensures regular school attendance and opportunities to participate in extracurricular activities and recreation. MPOJC efforts to support equitable transportation planning include: • Development of a Complete Streets Policy that requires the accommodation of all travel modes in the design of streets in order to receive federal funding. Complete streets max- imize opportunities for active transportation and thereby the lower costs of travel while increasing mobility options. • Completion of a comprehensive ADA sidewalk ramp inventory, which enabled MPO com- munities to target accessiblity improvements and services, such as paratransit, to assist individuals with limited mobility. • Development of grant funding criteria for MPO-funded projects that consider improve- ments to ADA compliance and mode choice as well as improved access for roadways that service multi-family development or other special populations. • Partnering with Johnson County, ECICOG, local human services agencies, for the develop- ment of a Mobility Coordinator - a position dedicated to working with persons with needs for special transportation assistance. • Assessment of signalized intersections to assist with prioritization of audible Accessible Pedestrian Signal (APS) enhancements. Challenges to Mobility & Access • Because low-income individuals are less likely to own a car, they are more likely to walk, wheel, or bike, even when conditions are not ideal. • Low income and minority populations are less likely to live near or travel along roads with safe, accessible, and high-quality pedestrian and bicycle facilities. • Low-income, minority, or immigrant individuals are more likely to have jobs that require them to commute outside of traditional ‘9 to 5’ business hours, often in the dark and when or where transit services are not operating. • Adults with disabilities are more tlikely as those without disabilities to have inade- quate transportation. • Children, older adults, and individuals with physical or cognitive disabilities may be unable to drive and are, more reliant on non-motorized travel modes. • As individuals age, they are increasingly likely to depend on public transit for their primary transportation. 52 53GuiDiNG PRiNCiPLeS GuiDiNG PRiNCiPLeS Strategies to ensure equity: 1. Ensure a range of affordable transportation options for all people and neighborhoods. 2. Maximize the safety, convenience, and reliability of the public transit system. 3. Prioritize the expansion and improvement of the sidewalk and multi-use trail network, especially for direct access from multi-family or mixed use development. 4. Support land use and development policies that ensure safe and convenient access between housing and employment areas, schools, recreation, and commercial areas. 5. Encourage multi-family zoning and development in areas served by transit. 6. Provide targeted LOS evaluation for non-motorized travel to evaluate transportation services and infrastructure serving low-income and disadvantaged neighborhoods. 7. Prioritize projects that create or enhance multi-modal access to employment, educa- tion, or recreational facilities. 8. Continue to support the Johnson County Mobility Coordinator. DESIRED TREND BASELINE DATA 2022 PLAN DATA TREND ↓49% metro average 49% metro average GOAL Provides access and opportunity for all people in all neighborhoods. OBJECTIVES Reduce the barriers to partipcation in community activities--school, extracurriculars, etc. Eliminate obstacles to employment and housing. Ensure access to daily needs and essential services. PERFORMANCE MEASURE DEFINITION Housing and Transporation Costs Average proportion of household income devoted to housing and transportation costs.