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Draft Regional Context - Jan224 5BACkGRouNDReGioNAL CoNTexT Regional Context 6 7ReGioNAL CoNTexT ReGioNAL CoNTexT The Metropolitan Area The Iowa City urbanized area is situated in Johnson County at the crossroads of Interstate 80 and 380 and also is served by Highways 218, 1, and 6. TheIowa Interstate Railroad and CRANDIC Railroad also bisect the area. Education and research define the economy with the University of Iowa and the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics being the major employers. Healthcare and research branches of the University have expanded beyond Iowa City into Coralville and adjacent to North Lib- erty. Research and technology companies and medical services that benefit proximity to the University have expanded throughout the area, including in the UI Reserch Park in Coralville. Metro area communities consistently rank as ideal places to live, work, and locate a business. Over the past decade metro communities have received national attention as best places to raise a family, retire, find a job, or start a busi- ness. It is, therefore, no surprise that Johnson County is the second fastest growing county in the state. Proximity to Cedar Rapids and its diverse employment opportunties also allows for people to live or work in the Iowa City Ur- banized Area with a short commute via I-380 (2010-2020). ]Johnson County is known for its low unem- ployment rate, diverse economic sectors, and educational opportunities, including a high performing public school system. Yet despite its many assets, Johnson County, also ranks high in the percentage of cost-burdened and extreme cost-burdened households—with 52% of renters and 16.4% of homeowners considered eigher cost-burdened or severe- ly costs burdened in 2019. 1 Comparatively, transportations costs (typically a households Note: Land use designations based on County property tax assessment classification.Note: Land use designations derived from future land use plans and documents for each community. Existing Land Uses Future Land Uses second-largest expenditure) account for 23% of total income for households in Johnson County.2 1. Scott, S., Anthony, J., & Williams, S. (2013). Increasing af- fordable housing in Iowa City. https://ppc.uiowa.edu/sites/ default/files/edited_affordable_housing_report.pdf 2. Center for Neighbrohood Technology. The Housing and Transportation (H+T®) Affordability Index. https://htain- dex.cnt.org/fact-sheets/ These land use maps provide a general sense of where municipalities have planned for ur- ban growth and development and the types of land uses anticipated. Land use categories rep- resented on these maps are simplified in or- der to make broad comparisions between the municipalities, especially with regard to trans- portation intensive uses such as industrial and commercial areas. These maps should not be used to make deci- sions about whether a particular land use may be allowed on a specific property or to draw conclusions about land values or develop- ment potential of specific properties. They do, however, demonstrate planned intensive uses along major road and rail corridorsin the Met- ro Area and how proximity to Cedar Rapids, to the north, exerts influence on where poeple live, shop, and locate businesses. 8 9ReGioNAL CoNTexT ReGioNAL CoNTexT iowa City 61%Coralville 19% North Liberty 17% Tiffin 3% Population Growth The Iowa City Metro Area is one of the fastest growing regions in the Midwest and second only to Des Moines in the state of Iowa. While over 60% of the Metro Area’s population re- sides in Iowa City, in recent years significant population growth has shifted to North Liberty and Tiffin, with Tiffin being the fastest growing community in the state. Though the 2020 decennial census is not rep- resented in the tables shown on this page, Tiffin’s population has increased to 4,512--a 131.7% increase over its 2010 population of 1,947. North Liberty also continues to grow rapidly. Though its population accounts for only 16% of the Metro population, nearly a third of the Metro Area’s population growth since 2014 is attributed to North Liberty. Though just outside the Metro planning boundary, the city of Solon also saw rapid pop- ulation growth, second only to Tiffin. Overall, the Cedar Rapids-Iowa City Corridor was one of the fastest growing areas in the state. The rate of growth for population at the com- munity level presents a somewhat different picture from overall metro growth, with pop- ulation in North Liberty growing by over one third, and Tiffin growing by a quarter between 2010 and 2014. This level of local population growth often presents challenges for the transportation system. Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2019 Census and American Community Survey estimates Johnson and Linn Counties are among the fastest growing areas in Iowa. Ac-cording to the 2020 census, Johnson County grew by 16.8% over the last de- cade, adding nearly 22,000 residents; Linn County grew by 9%, adding nearly 20,000 residents. State Johnson County iowa City Coralville North Liberty Tiffin university Heights Metro 2010 Census 3,046,355 130,882 67,862 18,907 13,374 1,947 1,051 103,141 2014 ACS 5- Year e stimate 3,078,116 136,802 70,597 19,677 14,503 1,921 1,214 107,912 2019 ACS 5-Year e stimate 3,139,508 148,577 74,950 21,103 18,829 3,351 1,159 119,392 Net Pop. Growth since 2010 93,153 17,695 7,088 2,196 5,455 1,404 108 16,251 % Growth (2010-2019)3%14%10%12%41%72%10%16% Annual Growth Rate 0.3%1.5%1.2%1.3%4.5%8.0%1.1%1.8% 55%17%15%3%1% 44%14%34%9%1%Share of Metro Population Growth 2014-2019 Current Population Share of Metro Population in 2019 2018 ACS 5-yr estimate 2019 ACS 5-yr estimate 2025 2030 2035 2040 2045 2050 Share of Metro Population 2050 iowa City 74,566 74,950 80,556 85,068 89,581 94,093 98,606 103,118 55% Coralville 20,645 21,103 22,522 23,841 25,160 26,479 27,797 29,116 15% North Liberty 18,357 18,829 20,966 26,842 30,515 34,187 37,860 41,532 22% Tiffin 3,008 3,351 5,051 6,086 7,334 8,837 10,649 12,832 7% university Heights 1,206 1,159 1,277 1,316 1,355 1,394 1,433 1,472 1% 188,070 100% Population Projections Trends and Projections MPOJC developed long-term population projections based on linear growth trends from 2010 to 2019. Based on these trends, the percentage of metro population residing in Iowa City by the year 2050 is expected to decrease to 55% as compared to 63% in 2019, while North Liberty’s pro- portion of the metro population is expected to increase to 22%. The share of metro population in Tiffin is also expected to increase from 3% to 7%. Coralville and University Heights are projected to maintain relatively similar proportions of metro area population. By the year 2050, growth trends indicate that the metro area will grow by 36.5%, or 68,678 peo- ple, to approximately 188,070 persons. Long-range transportation planning is an essential tool for ensuring the transportation network of today can meet the needs of tomorrow. 4%4%8% -1% 16% 4%5% 26% 42% -5% Population Growth by Community 2010-2014 2015-2019 IOWACITYCORALVILLENORTHLIBERTYTIFFINUNIVERSITY HEIGHTS Share of 2019 Metro Population by Community 10 11ReGioNAL CoNTexT ReGioNAL CoNTexT Population Density People per acreIn 2018, the areas with the greatest population densities tend to be centered near the Univer- sity of Iowa Campus, in downtown Iowa City, and along major metro arterial corridors, such as Highway 965 and 2nd Street and 1st Avenue in Coralville. TAZ maps A traffic analysis zone (TAZ) is the unit of geog- raphy used in transportation modeling repre- senting the area within which economic activity occurs that results in the movement of people and freight. The spatial extent of zones depict- ed on these maps ranges from fairly large ar- eas in a suburban or rural context to as small as a few city blocks in the central parts of Iowa City. Zone boundaries are typically roads includ- ed in the netowrk or natual features, such as the Iowa River. Each zone includes base year (2018) population and land use data. Local planners then assigned their jurisdiction’s an- ticipated polulation and employment growth to the zones for 2050. This information helps to further our understanding of trips that will be produced and attracted within the zone. Significant population and housing growth is expected in Tiffin, the west area of Coralville, in North Liberty, and the periphery of Iowa City. The greatest densities of population (people per acre) in 2050 are expected near downtown Iowa City and in the Riverfront Crossings dis- trict as a result of policies aimed at increasing population density and redevelopment. To prepare for future population growth, a new high school was opened in North Liberty in the fall of 2017. Two new elementary schools were opened on the south and east periphery of Iowa City. Two new elementary schools were recent- ly built near Highway 6 and Park Road in Tif- fin, and an additional middle school is planned for the same site. Tiffin also has recently con- structed a new high school and repurposed 2018 Estimate 2050 Projection 12 13ReGioNAL CoNTexT ReGioNAL CoNTexT Families with Children Not all households are considered families. Un- der the U.S. Census Bureau definition, family households consist of two or more individuals who are related by birth, marriage, or adoption, although they also may include other unrelated people. Over half of the total metro area families with children are located in Iowa City; 20% are locat- ed in Coralville, and 24% in North Liberty. This is roughly proportional to the population of metro area communities. Household income Households located in auto-dependent locations, such as suburban or rural locations, may spend upwards of 55% of their incomes on transportation costs. Housing that is located closer to employment, shopping, restaurants and other amenities can reduce household transportation costs to as little as 9% of household income.* Thoughtful coordination of land use and transportantion priorities can lead to wiser investments in road infrastructure that reduce transpor- tation costs for households. Planning for higher residential densities along transit routes and in areas close to employment centers allows those who most need transit services to access them easily. * FHWA Transportation and Housing Costs Fact Sheet. http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/livability/fact_sheets/transandhousing.cfm Iowa City 51% 5,850 familiesCoralville 20% 2,224 families North Liberty 24% 2,771 families Tiffin 4% 491 families University Heights 1% 124 families Proportion of Metro Area Families with Children The proportion of families with children un- der 18 has shifted since the 2045 Long-Range Transportation Plan was drafted. At that time 54 % of Metro Area families with children lived in Iowa City, 22% in Coralville, 20% in North Liberty, and 3 % in Tiffin. Source: American Community Survey, 2015-2019 5-year estimates.. MPOJC, Johnson County $49,075 $60,321 $83,949 $78,713 $68,533 $62,542 $60,523 Iowa City Coralville North Liberty Tiffin University Heights Johnson County State of Iowa Median Household income by Community Date prepared: october 2021 Date prepared: october 2021 Source: American Community Survey, 2015-2019 5-year estimates 14 15ReGioNAL CoNTexT ReGioNAL CoNTexTSource: Iowa City Area Development Group January 2017 (ICAD) http://www.iowacit- yareadevelopment.com/build/leading-employers.aspx$51,760 $40,137 $24,928 $80,074 $80,993 $35,617 $40,362 $96,406 $38,963 $33,613 $66,001 $46,933 $33,612 $49,686 $27,380 $73,280 $62,280 $52,187 $74,644 $63,598 $47,892 $79,363 0% 2% 4% 6% 8% 10% 12% 14% $0 $20,000 $40,000 $60,000 $80,000 $100,000 $120,000 Mean Annual Wage Percent of Total Employment Major employers 1 University of Iowa Hospital & Clinics 2 University of Iowa + UIHC 3 iowa City Community School District 4 VA Hospital 5 City of Iowa City 6 Mercy Hospital 7 Procter & Gamble 8 ACT 9 integrated DNA Technologies 10 Pearson TOP TEN EMPLOYERS The chart above illustrates the percentage of workers by industry in relation to the mean income for that industry in the urbanized area. From left to right, the graph shows the industries with the greatest to least per- centage of employed persons. The top (5) primary industries in the urbanized area: • Office and Administrative Support • Food Preparation and Serving Related • Healthcare Practioners and Technical • Educational Instruction and Library • Sales and Related https://www.iowaworkforcedevelopment.gov/iowa-wage-report 16 17ReGioNAL CoNTexT ReGioNAL CoNTexT employment Density The greatest density of employment is located in central Iowa City where the main Universi- ty campus and UIHC are located. The bulk of metro area commercial retail is located ad- jacent to Highway 6 and Coral Ridge Avenue in Coralville. The greatest density of industri- al uses is located in southeastern Iowa City along Highway 6 and north of Penn Street in North Liberty. There is a cluster of office park employment in northeast Iowa City near Inter- state 80 (ACT Inc campus, Pearson campus, and the Northgate Office Park) and in the Oak- dale Research Park near Coral Ridge Avenue in Coralville. 2018 Estimate 2050 Projection By 2050, North Liberty will experience a significant increase in employment density along Ranshaw Way/Highway 965, Kansas Avenue, and Penn Street. This employment density continues south into Coralville along Coral Ridge Avenue. In Iowa City, the area along Highway 1, north of I-80, and adja- cent to the Riverfront Crossings along Gilbert Street, will see an increase in employees. 2022-2050 The proposed infrastructure projects are expected to support the projected population and associated employment growth as shown in the level of service maps on pages 70-81. If planned road/bridge projects are able to be completed, peak hour con- gestion neat these areas of economic growth is slight to minimal with stable traffic flow. If employment trends continue [since 2014], the metropolitan planning area can expect over 59,000 new jobs to be created by 2050. [MPOJC 2050 Model] 18 19ReGioNAL CoNTexT ReGioNAL CoNTexT 2050 Projection Housing Density Transportation and land use are inextricably connected. The density and mix of land uses and other features shape the transportation needs and habits of residents. Higher-den- sity mixed-use areas tend to be associated with greater use of modes other than person- al vehicles. Transit tends to be more feasible and desirable in compact areas, where large numbers of people can be served efficiently. Car trips tend to be shorter, and ride sharing is also more feasible because there is a greater likelihood that individuals are traveling to and from similar locations. Based on current growth trends, the metro area will add more than 30,000 new units of housing (58% increase) in order to support population growth. Households per acreHouseholds per acre2018 Estimate Model Households Model PoP/ Hu Projected Model Households Model PoP/ Hu iowa City 33,254 2.24 44,750 2.30 11,496 34.6%54.7% Coralville 8,804 2.34 12,956 2.25 4,152 47.2%15.8% North Liberty 7,402 2.48 17,850 2.33 10,448 141.2%21.8% Tiffin 1,298 2.32 5,578 2.30 4,280 329.7%6.8% university Heights 541 2.23 639 2.30 98 18.1%0.8% TOTAL 51,299 2.32 81,773 2.30 30,474 HOUSINGHousing Projections Community Net Change 2018-2050 % Change 2018-2050 Share of 2050 Housing units20182050 Source: 2018/2050 MPOJC Travel Demand Model. Assumes population/housing unit growth rates remain constant. 20 21ReGioNAL CoNTexT ReGioNAL CoNTexT Note: Iowa City does not classify duplex (two-family) units as multi-family housing, therefore dulplexes are not reflected on the Iowa CIty portion of the map, though they are included for other communities. Multi-family Housing Multi-family housing (apartments, townhomes, and duplexes) has long been an important housing option in the metro area, where approx- imately half of all residents rent. Multi-family housing provides short- term housing for university and college students and a more affordable option for young families and retirees. It is an increasingly popular for workforce housing, especially for those young professionals who prefer to live close to their place of employment or in the downtown center. Multi-family housing can increase housing densities to better support public transportation, reduce public infrastructure costs, and allow for shorter trips and more walkable communities. Building permits for housing units by community 2010-2019 Permits for multi-family housing units in- creased significantly in Coralville (+566%) and Tiffin (+211%) when comparing the 5-year periods 2010-2014 and 2015-2019. Compar- ing these same 5-year periods, Iowa City had a 125% increase in housing unit permits, ap- proving more multi-family unit permits than all other metro communities combined. Tiffin is the only community where single-family building permits increased during 2015-2019 over the previous 5-year period. Single-family permits increased more than 300%. Data from HUD shows no permits from Uni- versity Heights despite development of One University Place multi-family development (ap- proximately 110 units.. Source: State of the Cities Building Permit Data System, U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). Housing Wage is an estimate of the hourly wage a full-time worker must earn to afford a modest rental home at HUD’s fair market rent (FMR) without spending more than 30% of income on housing costs, the accepted standard of affordability. Source: American Community Survery 2015-2019 Single Family Mulit- Family Single Family Mulit- Family Single Family Mulit- Family Single Family Mulit- Family 2010 153 59 40 0 136 0 13 16 2011 126 99 71 122 157 20 23 54 2012 223 176 77 10 136 20 19 18 2013 219 479 66 0 71 47 34 0 2014 226 219 89 75 162 93 19 72 2015 151 537 29 109 126 0 35 148 2016 263 817 18 370 120 0 36 139 2017 213 305 19 334 178 0 120 26 2018 132 189 25 467 73 51 151 108 2019 98 471 17 99 72 21 134 77 1,804 3,351 451 1,586 1,231 252 584 658 Single Family Mulit- Family Single Family Mulit- Family Single Family Mulit- Family Single Family Mulit- Family 2010-2014 947 1,032 343 207 662 180 108 160 2015-2019 857 2,319 108 1,379 569 72 476 498 -90 1,287 -235 1,172 -93 -108 368 338 -9.5%124.7%-68.5%566.2%-14.0%-60.0%340.7%211.3% Approved Building Permits for Housing Units 5 Years 2015-2019 % Change by Type Difference 1,483 1,242 Community Type of Housing Subtotal All Permits CoRALViLLeioWA CiTY NoRTH LiBeRTY T iFFiN 5 Years 2010-2014 5-Year Comparison 2,037 5,155 1,804 3,351 451 1,586 1,231 252 584 658 Single Family Mulit-Family Single Family Mulit-Family Single Family Mulit-Family Single Family Mulit-Family Iowa City Coralville North Liberty Tiffin Cost of Rental Housing in the Metro Area MAP To CoMe 22 23ReGioNAL CoNTexT ReGioNAL CoNTexT 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 under 5 years 5 to 9 10 to 14 15 to 19 20 to 24 25 to 29 30 to 34 35 to 39 40 to 44 45 to 49 50 to 54 55 to 59 60 to 64 65 to 69 70 to 74 75 to 79 80 to 84 85 and over PeRCeNTAGe oF PoPuLATioNAGe CoHoRTGeneration Z (2000-2015) 19% Millennials (1983-2000) 36% Generation X (1963-1983) 22% Baby Boomers (1946-1964) 22% FemaleMale Age Composition of the Metro Area Due to the large student population at the University of Iowa, the urbanized area has proportionally more residents between ages 20 and 24 that other ur- banized areas in the state. However, each jurisdiction has a slightly different age composition. In general, Iowa City is centralized around the 20 to 24-year-old age bracket, reflect- ing the college student population. Over 50% of Iowa City’s population falls be- tween the ages of 18 and 34. Located to the far north of the urbanized area, away from the University, North Lib- erty’s age composition is defined by fam- ilies with young children, with 20% of the population under 10 years old and 40% between the ages of 25 and 44. Tiffin is similar in that 18% of its population is un- der age 10 and adults between ages 25 and 44 years make up 25% of its popu- lation. Coralville’s age composition falls some- where in between, with its population more evenly distributed across age rang- es. About 45% of its population is be- tween the ages of 20 and 44 years. Information on housing to come. AGe CoMPoSiTioN BY CoMMuNiTY 24 25ReGioNAL CoNTexT ReGioNAL CoNTexT Vehicle Miles Traveled Vehicle miles traveled (VMT) is an estimate of the miles traveled by all vehicles within a specific region each year. VMT has been generally trending upward since the Great Recession of 2008. A number of factors influence VMT including income, vehicle ownership by household, number and length of trips, costs of transportation (in time and money), demographic changes, and the built environment. VMT helps us understand generally how trends in vehicle use and congestion change over time. VMT is also used to calculate the environmental effect of the transportation system, such as de- riving greenhouse gas emission estimates. At the local level, Tiffin and North Liberty’s population and VMT continues to grow at significantly faster rates than other metro communities. Both have higher vehicle commuting rates because they have further distances to travel to get to major employment centers and other regional destinations. According to the 2019 American Community Survey, 76% of workers who live in the metro area commute by personal vehicle. Of those, 66.5% drive alone while 9.1% carpooled. 10% of residents walked to work, while 7% used public transportation. Note that the ACS no longer tracks bicycling to work. The percentage of respondents who rely on private vehicles for transportation to work has increased slightly since 2015. This may be due, in part to the retail price of gasoline , which remained above $3.00/gallon during 2011-2014. Another factor may the be the rapid population growth in the north corridor where Tiffin and North Liberty have outpaced other metro communities. 6% of households in the Metro Planning Area do not have access to a car. Commuting to Work Source: Iowa DOT (https://iowadot.gov/maps/Data/Vehicle-miles-traveled) VeHiCLeS AVAiLABLe iowa City Coralville North Liberty Tiffin university Heights No vehicle available 7.4%3.2%0.4%0.1%6.1% 1 vehicle available 28.30%24%19.90%21.10%22.50% 2 vehicles available 43.10%47.10%57.80%51.10%47.90% 3 or more vehicles available 21.30%25.80%21.90%27.70%23.60% Source: 2019 ACS 5-Yr Data 10% 4% 13% 9% -1% Iowa City Coralville North Liberty Tiffin University Heights % Change in VMT 2016-2019 Vehicle Miles Traveled (1000's of miles) 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 Iowa City 319,489 317,831 309,788 322,448 328,790 326,826 360,781 360,705 360,877 313,724 Coralville 232,576 217,004 216,616 234,896 240,699 234,794 241,738 245,645 243,356 209,131 North Liberty 46,672 46,410 45,080 49,700 51,647 51,777 58,684 59,978 58,605 50,298 Tiffin 30,812 29,653 29,742 34,336 35,206 33,031 34,790 35,839 36,071 30,090 University Heights 3,715 3,705 3,585 3,759 3,852 3,798 3,835 3,770 3,755 3,286 Metro 633,264 614,603 604,811 645,139 660,194 650,226 699,828 705,937 702,664 606,529 633,264 614,603 604,811 645,139 660,194 650,226 699,828 705,937 702,664 606,529 Metro VMT (1000s) Source: US Energy Information Administration eia.gov/petroleum/gasdiesel iowa City Coralville North Liberty Tiffin university Heights Metro Area iowa Workers 16 years and over 41,772 11,254 11,075 1,928 610 66,639 1,587,322 MEANS OF TRANSPORTATION TO WORK Car, truck, or van 68.0%85.0%95.0%95.0%47.0%72.8%89.3% Drove alone 58.9%74.7%83.6%91.6%46.1%66.5%81.1% Carpooled 8.7%10.0%11.0%3.3%1.1%9.1%8.3% Public transportation (except taxis)8.7%7.1%0.9%0.2%6.7%6.9%1.1% Walked 14.3%3.6%0.7%0.3%31.8%11.2%3.5% Other means 5.1%1.1%0.8%0.3%11.3%3.6%1.4% 0.5%0.6%4.3%0.5%1.2%1.5%1.0% Worked at home 4.2%3.6%3.0%4.3%3.0%3.9%4.9% Mean travel time to work (minutes)17.0 18.7 24.3 19.5 15.3 19.0 19.3 Source: 2019 ACS 5-Yr Data 32% Of University Heights workers walk to work; <50% of workers drive to work.95% of workers in North Liberty and Tiffin travel to work by car, truck, or van. 26 27ReGioNAL CoNTexT ReGioNAL CoNTexT Commuting within the Metro Area for Work Many metro area residents live in one com- munity but travel daily to another community for work. Iowa City and Coralville draw the greatest percentage of workers from adjacent communities within the metro. Cedar Rapids is also a major draw for workers from the met- ro are. As noted on page 26, over 9,000 work- ers who live in the Iowa CIty urbanized work in Cedar Rapids and over 9,500 workers who live in Cedar Rapids work in our metro area. Source: U.S. Census Bureau, On The Map Application and LEHD Origin-Destination Employment Statistics (Beginning of Quarter Employmen, 2nd Quarter of 2002-2018). Nearly half of those employed in Johnson County commute in from other counties. Resident County # of Workers Johnson 47,650 54.5% Linn 9,657 11.1% Washington 3,241 3.7% Cedar 2,292 2.6% iowa 2,102 2.4% Muscatine 2,038 2.3% Polk 1,882 2.2% Scott 1,469 1.7% Dubuque 1,099 1.3% Black Hawk 842 1.0% All other Locations 15,111 17.3% ToTAL Workers 87,383 45.5% of all workers in Johnson County commute in from other areas. Share of Workers employed in Johnson County County of Employment # of Workers Johnson 47,560 67.90% Linn 9,172 13.1% Polk 2,235 3.2% Scott 1,155 1.6% Black Hawk 962 1.4% iowa 931 1.3% Washington 842 1.2% Muscatine 681 1.0% Cedar 517 0.7% Dubuque 484 0.7% All other Locations 5,392 7.7% 32% of Johnson County workers are employed in other counties. Share of Workers Residing in Johnson County Nearly a third of workers living in Johnson County travel out of the county for work. 28 29ReGioNAL CoNTexT GuiDiNG PRiNCiPLeS Guiding Principles Average Housing + Transportation Costs as Percent of Household Income The statistics for communities are modeled for the Regional Typical Household. Income: $55,842 Commuters: 1.25 vehicles Household Size: 2.38 (Iowa City, IA) Source: Housing and Tranpsortation Fact Sheets, Center for Neighborhood Tech- nology. Based on data from the American Community Survey: 2019. http://htaindex.cnt.org/